TOJNED - Volume 6 - Issue 2 - April 2016

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BEYOND PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING: HOW A RESIDENCY MODEL AFFECTS THE EDUCATION OF PRE-SERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS

Ryan Andrew Nivens, Renée Rice Moran

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In 2010, the state of Tennessee embraced the call to overhaul teacher education
and required programs to adopt a residency model within K-12 schools. How exactly this
would affect the various methods courses in a teacher education program? This paper
provides a description of how two elementary education methods courses have shifted from
simulation-style projects to projects that involve working with actual elementary students
throughout the semester. This article presents an overview of the new residency style
methods courses, along with how major assignments shifted to utilize the extensive time
pre-service teachers would spend in the elementary school classroom.

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COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF IN-PERSON AND VIDEOBASED DIALOGIC READING TRAINING

Diana Brannon

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Dialogic reading is a shared reading activity designed to increase verbal
interactions between parents and their preschool-aged children. The current study compares
the results of in-person dialogic reading training to video-based training. The purpose of the
study is to measure and compare the effect each program type has on the expressive
language and vocabulary development of preschool-aged “children of promise” identified
as “at-risk” by the public school system. Children’s expressive language was measured
prior to and after receiving training using the Individual Growth Developmental Indicators
(IGDI) picture naming assessment. Children whose parents participated in the video-based
intervention (p < .01) and children whose parents participated in the in-person training (p <
.05) made significant gains in expressive language scores from pre-test to post-test. There
was not a significant difference between groups at the post-test, showing both programs
were effective in increasing verbal interactions between parents and their preschool-aged
children.

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DIFFERENTIATING CHARTER FROM NON-CHARTER SCHOOLS: A STATEWIDE INVESTIGATION

Samson A. Moreno, John R. Slate

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In this study, the extent to which charter schools could be differentiated from
non-charter elementary, middle, and high schools in Texas was investigated. Statewide
archival data from the Texas Education Agency Academic Excellence Indicator System
were obtained on all Texas public schools, charter and non-charter, for the 2010-2011
school year. Canonical stepwise discriminant analyses were conducted to determine
whether specific school characteristics (i.e., Percent of Full-Time Beginning Teachers,
Percent of Black Student Enrollment, Percent of Student Enrollment Who Were
Economically Disadvantaged, Mobility Rate, Percent of Disciplinary Alternative Education
Program Placements, Percent of Hispanic Student Enrollment, Percent of Bilingual/English
Enrollment, Percent of Limited English Proficient Student Enrollment, and Percent of
Students Who Were At-Risk) could differentiate charter from non-charter schools at each
campus level. All three canonical stepwise discriminant function analyses were statistically
significant. The canonical functions provided strong differentiation in the school
characteristics between charter and non-charter schools at the elementary, middle, and high
school levels. Of interest is that the school characteristic that most strongly discriminated
between charter and non-charter schools was the percentage of full-time beginning
teachers. Implications of our results are discussed.

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EXPLORING FAIRNESS AND JUSTICE: MEANINGS, RELATIONSHIPS AND VALUES

Hardie Gieben M. Cruz, Marry O. Dela Torre, Fatima D. Javier, Ma. Eunice S. Papa

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The study aimed to explore the meaning, identify the different values and relationship
of fairness and justice among individuals on Filipino context. 120 college students at Philippine
Normal University are randomly selected for this study. Equal numbers of participants are
gathered in each year level and most of them are female. Fairness and Justice Questionnaire was
developed by the researchers and administered. Participants were given areas such as family and
school to anchor their answer when having difficulty. The study found that fairness is
contextualized as social aspect and respondents’ sight samples in family and school areas. Justice
is contextualized as state that is weighing things in different perspective, focus on what is right or
wrong and following laws and standards. Emerging values themes were constructed and they are
similar in a way that they must have righteousness. Fairness is for simple things only but justice is
for complex issues.

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FACILITATING THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE ACCOUNTANTS: A MALAYSIAN EXAMPLE

Umaru Mustapha Zubairu

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Two decades of financial scandals have seriously damaged the credibility of
accountants as guardians of financial information. To repair this credibility, the Malaysian
government released a blueprint that mandated Malaysian educational institutions to
produce morally competent professionals. This study sought to assist the accounting
department at the Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) in achieving this mandate by
evaluating the moral competencies of second-year students using an instrument developed
by a collaboration with Islamic accounting scholars. The results revealed that the current
second-year accounting students at USIM possessed below par levels of moral competencies
in dealing with ethical dilemmas in an accounting context. The implication of these results
is that USIM's accounting department has to critically assess the ethical content of its
curriculum in order to ensure that it is capable of developing the moral competencies of
these students to an excellent level. Additionally, there is a need for USIM to institutionalize
the measurement of students' moral competencies so that an objective determination can be
made as to how effective the department is in developing the moral competencies of its
students.

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INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF DESPAIR OF INMATES LIVING IN THE PRISON DEPENDING ON AGE AND MARITAL STATUS FACTORS ( TURKISH REPUBLIC OF NORTHERN CYPRUS SAMPLE)

Demet KARAKARTAL

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The aim of the study is to determine whether there is a big difference between
the level of inmates living in a prison located in North Cyprus connected to Ministry of
Internal Affairs, depending on factors such as age and marital status. Sample of the study
consists of 110 prisoners living in the prison in Cyprus. Data is collected by means of the
personal individual form designed by the researcher and Beck Despair Scale (BUO).
Average and standard deviations are used in defining data while variant analysis ANOVA
and then Duncan TEST (5%) are used in analysing data. The most hopeful group observed
in the study is prisoners at the age interval 31- 40 (X=4.97). no significant change between
the groups seen in terms of marital status factor statistically (P=0,117). However, the
difference between the married ones which is the most hopeful group (X=4.26) and
divorced ones as the most hopeless group (X=7,76) is significant.

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IS WILLIAMS SYNDROME THE ‘CONVERSE’ OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER?

Nor Siti Rokiah Abdul Razak, Noor Aini Ahmad

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Williams Syndrome (WMS) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are neuro-developmental
disorders associated with distinct social phenotypes. Infant and young children associated with these two
disorders provided evidence of developmental delay. This paper attempts on analyzing the extent of
convergence and divergence of the behaviours in WMS and the symptoms of ASD. Features of diagnosis and
characteristics, as well as developmental achievements in these two disorders will also be addressed further.
Moreover, in depth discussion and comparison on a number of aspects including; intellectual ability, visualspatial
skills, language and communication, social interaction and emotion detection, in regards to both
disorders will be dealt in detail throughout the rest of this paper.

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KNOWLEDGE, CHARACTER, PIETY: FOUNDATIONAL TENETS OF COMENIUS’ MORAL EDUCATION

Jan Hábl

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The goal of this paper is to present Comenius’ foundational principles of moral
education as it is outlined primarily in his didactic writings, and to show their relevance to
contemporary pedagogical practice. The mutual inter-relation of knowledge, character and
spirituality will be exposed, analyzed and explained. Comenius was a Czech 17th century
Brethren bishop, philosopher and educator who is celebrated especially for his timeless
didactic principles, which earned him the epithet “the teacher of nations.”

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LEARNING TEACHING: A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY

Christine Shobana Arthur

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The voyage of discovery is not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes
~ Marcel Proust. This paper is a reflection of a teacher’s experience of becoming critically
reflective of his/her teaching practices. The teaching practices were triangulated through
four lenses as proposed by Brookfield (1995): 1) autobiography as a learner and teacher, 2)
colleagues’ experiences, 3) students’ eye and 4) theoretical literature. The first lens is a
written reflective task on the journey of being a learner and now a teacher. This lens proves
that one’s teaching practices are linked to how one was taught as a student. The second lens
is the non-evaluative feedback provided by peers about the teacher’s teaching practices.
The third lens is the feedback provided by students on certain specific concern that the
teacher had highlighted. The final lens is the process of linking the practical aspects with
theoretical aspects. Each lens reinforces one another. Consequently, this process helps one
not only to become critical but also reflective of the teaching practices. Through this
process a clear link was identified amongst the four lenses. The new perspective gained
from this experience is indeed very crucial for all the academicians as it is a process of
renewal of teaching practices by identifying discrepancies or conformities amongst the four
lenses.

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LOOKING THROUGH THE LENSES OF OTHERS: EXAMINING THE DIVERSE REFLECTIONS OF FOUR NEWLY QUALIFIED TEACHERS

Brian Vassallo

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Our increasingly globalised world around is presenting us with new challenges
amongst which is the increasing heterogeneity of students in our classes. In Malta, teachers
are approaching this phenomenon with a developing sense of understanding diversity and a
genuine commitment to reach all students under their care. The author sought the
experiences of four Newly Qualified Teachers in their first two years of teaching and
examined their perceptions on multicultural education and the practices they applied in
concomitance with academic literature. The social constructivist approach to the study
revealed that teachers believed in the need for more training on Multicultural Education and
on the ongoing communication with parents and students. They also insisted that teachers
read academic literature to prepare themselves to embrace all students irrespective of
background and embark on setting of a unit on Multicultural and Diversity Education
within the Education Division in Malta.

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PROBLEM SOLVING AND ITS TEACHING IN MATHEMATICS

Esen Ersoy

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Purpose of this study is to determine problem solving skills of primary
mathematics preservice teachers in mathematics teaching. This research was carried out with
the 3rd year students studying in the department of elementary mathematics teaching at
Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University. Research method was determined as case study, one of
the qualitative methods. In the study, the students were taught for 13 weeks (39 hours)
Polya’s (1945) problem solving stages that are composed of 4 stages and the problem solving
stages were introduced in order to improve their problem solving skills. In the research, two
problems developed by Posamentier and Krulik (1998) and semi-structured interview form
developed by the researcher were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data,
solutions of the problems applied were examined considering Polya’s (1945) problem
solving steps. The findings obtained via the solutions of applied problems and via the
semi-structured interview form were established with the percentage and frequency values.
As a result, it became evident that subject of problem solving has a positive effect on the
development of mathematics teachers’ problem solving skills.

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PUBLIC EXPENDITURE IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF NEPAL

Shree Prasad Devkota, Ramesh Chaulagain, Shiba Bagale

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Hence the education is a primary need of an individual; the government of Nepal
has the role to provide it to the people cheaper and quality. Education is one of the primary
and significant social factors which is closely linked with individuals and is the prime
indicator of development as well. From a very beginning the government of Nepal is being
spent public resources to enhance the situation of educational environment of country and
to increase the literacy rate. In the recent years too, the government of Nepal has been
spent about 16 percent of total budget expenditure in the educational sector in an average.
But there is only 65.9 percent literacy rate, of those who are above 5 years, is achieved till
the date. There are several countries in the world with hundred percent achievement of
such the literacy.
General understanding about the issue is that there is a close correlationship between the
public expenditure and educational productivity. If the productivity of the education
contrasts its expenditure, it is misuse of the scarce resources. It is because there are
several social, infrastructural and economic needs and necessities of the people than the
education in the country. It is obvious that the food, shelter and clothing are basic needs of
the people rather than the education. To curb the situation there is need of rethink about
the education policy, practices and procedures with respect to the utilization of its public
expenditure. In one side, the huge resources from the public sector are spent in the
education, unlikely the achievement is found no more satisfactory, comparatively. There is
significant flow of foreign aid or assistance in this sector too, but there is strong debate and
doubt of the quality of the education provided by the government. The paper tries to
explore the issue of the rational utilization of the public expenditure in education in one
side and the ways to make it more productive and result oriented in another. For it, some
policies and literatures are reviewed and is compared it with some achievements.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER ASSISTANT SUPPORT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF EXCEPTIONAL STUDENTS IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

Farid Suleymanov

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Through qualitative research this study investigated the relationship between
teacher assistant support and academic achievements of exceptional students in Azerbaijan
which also suggests universal implication. With semi-structured interview the researcher
looked at the above-mentioned relationship through class teachers’ eyes and with
observation through his own eyes. The findings clearly imply that there is definitely a
strong relationship between teacher assistant performance and academic development of
students with special educational needs. However, involvement of assistant teachers into
inclusion might lead to isolation within classes if they take superior position to class
teachers. For the sake of effective start and progress of inclusive practice, education
reforms should be implemented in order to increase class teachers’ capacity in order to
enable them to lead inclusive education.

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TEACHERS' ACCEPTANCE ON USING INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN TEACHING TAMIL LANGUAGE

Siti Hajar Halili, Suguneswary

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This study was conducted to identify the teachers' perception of using
information communication and technology (ICT) in teaching Tamil Language at Tier 1.
Theory of acceptance model (TAM) was used to identify the teachers’ perception on their
acceptance of using ICT in teaching Tamil language at Tier 1 KSSR. The study was
conducted using a qualitative approach. Observations and interviews were used to collect
data. Six respondents among teachers were interviewed. The results showed that teachers’
acceptance on using ICT is positive in terms of significancy, facility and teachers’ readiness
in teaching Tamil at Tier 1 KSSR. Based on the research findings, suggestions have been
proposed to increase the effective use of ICT in teaching Tamil language at Tier 1 KSSR
among teachers.

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THE DETERMINATION OF SCIENCE TEACHER CANDIDATES' IDEAS ON CELL SUBJECT THROUGH DRAWING METHOD

Ümmühan Ormancı, Ali Günay Balım

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Though science teacher candidates know the cell subject in theory, they cannot
connect the relation between the cell and its organelles exactly. With this study, using
drawing method to ascertain the ideas of the teacher candidates about cell subject, the
importance of the use of the drawing method in assessments will be emphasized. In the
study it is aimed to determine the science teacher candidates' ideas on cell subject through
drawing. The study was carried out with 62 teacher candidates that study science teaching
department second grade in 2012-2013 academic year fall semester. In the study survey
method was used, which is one of the descriptive research methods. In the study the
drawing test (Drawing Test Regarding Cell Subject) which was developed by researchers
was used as data gathering tool and developed rubric was used for data analysis. According
to the findings obtained from the study it can be said that teacher candidates generally have
sufficient performance on cell subject. Although science teacher candidates know the basic
parts of the cell they have misunderstandings about the places, shapes and the connections
of the organelles. Besides, it can be expressed that the teacher candidates have inadequate
information about the nucleus. In this context although teacher candidates know the cell
organelles, they have lacking knowledge regarding the shape-place-connections of the cell.
In this study it is understood that they drew the nucleus at the right place however they do
not know some parts or relatively know the parts of the cell.

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THE MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTION OF THE GRADE

Violeta Janusheva, Milena Pejchinovska, Bisera Kostadinovska

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The grade of students’ achievements, with all its weaknesses, is a form of
feedback through which the students are informed about the effects of the process of
learning and the results of the effort they put. It is assumed that this sort of feedback has a
motivational impact on their future work in the teaching process.
In the educational process, the teacher should constantly work on the development of the
students’ confidence and the development of the motive for achievement, because it is a
very important factor that enables proper experience of the feedback on the students’
individual achievements. The motive for achievement is an important factor in the student’
performance. Taking into account the impact the grade has not only on the students, but on
the parents and other entities interested in the students’ achievements too, the paper
examines the motivational function of the grade through surveys and informal interviews
conducted with students and teachers, i.e. an examination of how much the grade as a
number, obtained in the teaching process as feedback, influences the students’ motivation to
learn.

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THE POST-CERTIFICATION PERFORMANCE OF MATHEMATICS TEACHERS

Zuli Nuraeni, Heri Retnawati

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This study aims to describe the post-certification performance of mathematics
teachers of vocational high schools in Wonosobo Regency Central Java province of
Indonesia. This was a descriptive study with qualitative and quantitative approach (mixed
method). The subjects were all mathematics teachers of vocational high schools in
Wonosobo Regency who have passed the teachers certification. The instrument consisted of
teachers’ self-assessment questionnaires, observation sheets, interview guide and sheets of
studies document. Data analysis techniques used with categorized performance trends into
5 groups: Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, and Very Poor. The resuls of research are the postcertification
performance of mathematics teachers of vocational high schools in Wonosobo
regency on planning the lesson is in the good category; the post-certification performance
of mathematics teachers of vocational high schools in Wonosobo regency on the learning
implementation is in the good category; the post-certification performance of mathematics
teachers of vocational high schools in Wonosobo regency on the learning assessment is in
the very good category; the post-certification performance of mathematics teachers of
vocational high schools in Wonosobo regency in the professional development is in the
very poor category and needs to be improved.

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UNIVERSITY LECTURERS EXPERIENCE IN THE DESIGN AND USE OF MOODLE AND BLENDED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Frederick Kwaku SARFO, Issifu YIDANA

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This study is designed to investigate into how academics (university lecturers)
who were involved in the design and development of MOODLE based-courses use the
blended learning system to facilitate teaching and learning in the classroom and what
factors facilitate or impede the effective design of MOODLE by academics .Qualitative
research design was used. Various existing courses of seven lecturers at various faculties of
University of Education, Winneba were redesigned with the lecturers and instructional
designers in accordance with the specifications of MOODLE learning environment. The
lecturers implemented the designed MOODLE learning environment with face-to-teaching
to teach students in the real classrooms of the University. The results of the study revealed
that academics use MOODLE to prepare and present lessons and chart with students before
and after face-to-face lesson in the classroom. The results also revealed that the way
academics use MOODLE for assessment reflects their mode of face-face teaching in the
classroom. In addition, the finding showed that training program, incentives and
motivational packages are necessary for academics to adopt ICT. The major challenges
faced as revealed by the results were: 1) low technology competencies, cumbersome
institutional culture, and lack of adequate ICT facilities. It is concluded based on the
findings that Blended learning systems seems effective and efficient in developing
countries (Ghanaian context). However, its development and implementation by the users
(academics) present a number of challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve its
full potentials to promote the development of the 21st century competencies

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